Etymology[ edit ] Dzungaria Red and the Tarim Basin or Altishahr Blue Xinjiang consists of two main geographically, historically, and ethnically distinct regions with different historical names: Dzungaria north of the Tianshan Mountains ; and the Tarim Basin south of the Tianshan Mountains.
The region of Dzungaria in northern Xinjiang was named after its native inhabitants, the Dzungar Mongols. In the Qing China conquered the region. It was never adopted.
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At the time of the Qing conquest inDzungaria was mostly inhabited by the Oirat Mongol-speaking Dzungar peoplewhile the Tarim Basin was inhabited by sedentary Muslim Uyghur people. They were governed separately until The Qing dynasty was well aware of the differences between the former Buddhist Mongol area to the north of the Tianshan and Turkic Muslim south of the Tianshan, and ruled them in separate administrative units at first.
Rather, Xinjiang's distinct identity was given by the Qing. It had distinct geography, history, and culture, while at the same was still Chinese territory, settled by Han and Hui, distinct from the rest of Central Asia, and largely multicultural.
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Millward described the original Uyghurs as physically Mongoloidgiving as an example the images in Bezeklik at temple 9 of the Uyghur patrons, until they began to mix with the Tarim Basin's eastern Iranian inhabitants. These are thought to have referred to the Yuezhi people.
According to J. Mallory and Victor H. Mair"[s]uch a description could accord well with a Caucasoid population beyond the frontiers of Ancient China," possibly the Yuezhi.
The Afanasevo culture c. Mair 's team concluded that the mummies are Caucasoidlikely speakers of Indo-European languages such as the Tocharians :   :p.
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East Asian peoples only began showing up in the eastern portions of the Tarim Basin about 3, years ago, Mair said, while the Uighur peoples arrived after the collapse of the Orkon Uighur Kingdom, largely based in modern day Mongolia, around the year Mallory and Mair associate these types with the Tocharian and Iranian Saka branches of the Indo-European language familyrespectively. The Ordos culture 6th to 2nd centuries BCE in northern China east of the Yuezhi, whose excavated skeletal maestrul de tranzacționare eric nyman have been predominantly Mongoloid.
Xiongnu rule 2nd—1st c. The Xiongnu were a tribal confederation maestrul de tranzacționare eric nyman of nomadic peoples who, according to ancient Chinese sourcesinhabited the eastern Eurasian Steppe from the 3rd century BC to the late 1st century AD. This new political unity transformed them into a more formidable state by enabling formation of larger armies and the ability maestrul de tranzacționare eric nyman lucrați de la domiciliu la piacenza better strategic coordination.
After their previous rivals, the Yuezhimigrated into Central Asia during the 2nd century BC, the Xiongnu became a dominant power on the steppes of north-east Central Asiacentered on an area known later as Mongolia.
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Their relations with adjacent Chinese dynasties to the south east were complex, with repeated periods of conflict and intrigue, alternating with exchanges of tributetrade, and marriage treaties heqin. The reason for creating the confederation remains unclear.
History of Xinjiang
Suggestions include the need for a stronger state to deal with the Qin unification of China  that resulted in a loss of the Ordos region at the hands of Meng Tian or the political crisis that overtook the Xiongnu in BC when Qin armies evicted them from their pastures on the Yellow River.
To the north he conquered a number of nomadic peoples, including the Dingling of southern Siberia. He crushed the power of the Donghu people of eastern Mongolia and Manchuria as well as the Yuezhi in the Hexi Corridor of Gansuwhere his son, Jizhu, made a skull cup out of the Yuezhi king.
Modu also reoccupied all the lands previously taken by the Qin general Meng Tian. They saw this as a patriotic act restoring the greatness and borders of the Han dynasty. He was captured by the Maestrul de tranzacționare eric nyman, and held prisoner for a decade.
After his return, his knowledge of the lands of the west was the main information the Han had of this region. After a series of victories against the Xiongnu, the Chinese penetrated the strategic region from the Ordos and Gansu corridor as far as Lop Nor.
The Tarim Basin and Indo-European kingdoms were controlled through military colonies by the Han dynasty, but the Han "never had a foothold in Zungharia northern Xinjiangwhich the Xiongnu and the Wusun dominated for this whole period. From to the Han left the Tarim Basin again, leaving it to the Xiongnu. In the 4th century, Zungharia was occupied by Ruanruan confederation, while the oasis cities south of Tianshan paid tribute to the Ruanruan.
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Within a century they had defeated the Rouran and established a vast Turkic Khaganate —stretching over most of Central Asia past both the Aral Sea in the west and Lake Baikal in the east. In the Gokturks split into the Western Turkic Khaganate — and Eastern Turkic Khaganate —with Xinjiang coming under the western half.
Parts of southern Xinjiang were controlled by the Tuyuhun Kingdom —who established a vast empire that encompassed QinghaiGansuNingxianorthern Sichuaneastern Shaanxisouthern Xinjiangand most of Tibetstretching 1, kilometers from east to west and 1, kilometers from north to south. They unified parts of Inner Asia for the first time in history, developed the southern route of the Maestrul de tranzacționare eric nyman Roadand promoted cultural exchange between the eastern and western territories, dominating the northwest for more than three and half centuries until it was destroyed by the Tibetan Empire.
Tang and Tibetan expansions[ edit ] See also: Tang campaigns against the Western TurksConquest of the Western Turksand Protectorate General to Pacify the West Map of the Tang military expeditions against the oasis states of southern Xinjiang Starting from the s and s, the Tang dynasty conducted a series of expeditions against the Eastern Turks.
Ashina's defeat strengthened Tang rule in southern Xinjiang and brought the regions formerly controlled by the khaganate into the Tang empire.
Unlike the Han dynasty, the Tang ruling house of Li had intermarriages and close affinity to ce este linia de tendință nomads of the north, due to the establishment of nomadic kingdoms in northern Chibna after the fall of the Han Empire, and the mutual Sinification and Turkification of Turkish and Chinese elites.
This affinity with the Turks may partly explain why the Tang were able to expand their influence westward into the Tarim Basin, which they ruled maestrul de tranzacționare eric nyman through protectorates and garrisons. The Tang only retained a military foothold in Beiting.