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Roboţii militari ucigaşi ''vor fi kalaşnikovul de mâine''
December Self-maintenance[ edit ] The first requirement for complete physical autonomy is the ability for a robot to take care of itself. Many of the battery-powered robots on the market today can find and connect to a charging station, and some toys like Sony's Aibo are capable of self-docking to charge their batteries. Self-maintenance is based on " proprioception ", or sensing one's own internal status.
In the battery charging example, the robot can tell proprioceptively that its batteries are low and it then seeks the charger.
Another common proprioceptive sensor is for heat monitoring. Increased proprioception will be required for robots to work autonomously near people and in harsh environments.
Common proprioceptive sensors include thermal, optical, and haptic sensing, as well as the Hall effect roboți comerciali de dezvoltare. Robot GUI display showing battery voltage and other proprioceptive data in lower right-hand corner. The display is for user information only. Autonomous robots monitor and respond to proprioceptive sensors without human intervention to keep themselves safe and operating properly.
Sensing the environment[ edit ] Exteroception is sensing things about the environment.
Autonomous robots must have a range of environmental sensors to perform their task and stay out of trouble. Common exteroceptive sensors roboți comerciali de dezvoltare the electromagnetic spectrumsoundtouch, chemical smell, odortemperature, range to various objects, and altitude.
Some robotic lawn mowers will adapt their programming by detecting the speed in which grass grows as needed to maintain a perfectly cut lawn, and some vacuum cleaning robots have dirt detectors that sense how much dirt is being picked up and use this information to tell them to stay in one area longer.
Task performance[ edit ] The next step in autonomous behavior is to actually perform a physical task.
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A new area showing commercial promise is domestic robots, with a flood of small vacuuming tipuri de câștiguri pe internet beginning with iRobot and Electrolux in While the level of intelligence is not high in these systems, they navigate over wide areas and pilot in tight situations around homes using contact and non-contact sensors.
Both of these robots use proprietary algorithms to increase coverage over simple random bounce. The next level of autonomous task performance requires a robot to perform conditional tasks. For instance, security robots can be programmed to detect intruders and respond in a particular way depending upon where the intruder is.
Indoor navigation[ edit ] For a robot to associate behaviors with a place localization requires it to know where it is and to be able to navigate point-to-point. Such navigation began with wire-guidance in the s and progressed in the early s to beacon-based triangulation. Current commercial robots autonomously navigate based on sensing natural features.
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The first commercial robots to achieve this were Pyxus' HelpMate hospital robot and the CyberMotion guard robot, both designed by robotics pioneers in the s. These robots originally used manually created CAD floor plans, sonar sensing and wall-following variations to navigate buildings. The next generation, such as MobileRobots' PatrolBot and autonomous wheelchair,  both introduced inhave the ability to create their own laser-based maps of a building and to navigate open areas as well as corridors.
Their control system changes its path on the fly if something blocks the way. At first, autonomous navigation was based on planar sensors, such as laser range-finders, that can only sense at roboți comerciali de dezvoltare level.
The most advanced systems now fuse information from various sensors for both localization position and navigation.
Systems such as Motivity can rely on different sensors in different areas, depending upon which provides the most reliable data at the time, and can re-map a building autonomously. Rather than climb stairs, which requires highly specialized hardware, most indoor robots navigate handicapped-accessible areas, controlling elevators, and electronic doors. Autonomously climbing stairs and opening doors manually are topics of research at the current time. As these indoor techniques continue to develop, vacuuming robots will gain the ability to clean a roboți comerciali de dezvoltare user-specified room or a whole floor.
Security robots will be able to cooperatively surround intruders and cut off exits. These advances also bring concomitant protections: robots' internal maps typically permit "forbidden areas" to be defined to prevent robots from autonomously entering certain regions.