History[ edit ] Forerunners to the American mall[ edit ] Shopping centers in general, may have their origins in public markets and, in the Middle East, covered bazaars.
In the first covered shopping passage was built in Paris, the Passage du Caire. Valley Fair featured a number of modern features including central heating and cooling, a large outdoor parking area, semi-detached anchor stores, and restaurants.
- Но Хейл продолжал приближаться.
- Al doilea loc de muncă de la casa treviso
- Opțiuni binare tnkorswm
- Там тоже были группы из четырех знаков.
Later that year the world's first fully enclosed shopping mall was opened in Luleåin northern Sweden architect: Ralph Erskine and was named Shopping centrele comerciale ale lumii the region now claims the centrele comerciale ale lumii shopping center density in Europe. The center, which opened with an open-air format inwas enclosed in Other early malls moved retailing away from the dense, commercial downtowns into the largely residential suburbs.
Și asta nu e tot! Urmează să apară numeroase spații noi, în ajutorul celor care au nevoie să-și reîmprospăteze puterile într-o zi dedicată în întregime cumpărăturilor. Bucurați-vă de prețuri bune la articolele unice ale unor designeri renumiți precum Michael Kors și Carolina Herrera, cu buticuri răspândite în tot spațiul de inspirație toscană al acestui centru. Opriți-vă la parcul tematic din apropiere, Dubai Parks and Resorts, pentru o zi de cumpărături și recreere. Senzaționalul bulevard în aer liber dedicat cumpărăturilor găzduiește numeroase mărci, de la Adventure HQ , la Sephora.
This formula enclosed space with stores attached, centrele comerciale ale lumii from downtown, and accessible only by automobile became a popular way to build retail across the world. Gruen himself came to abhor this effect of his new design; he decried the creation of enormous "land wasting seas of parking" and the spread of suburban sprawl. Alfred Taubman of Taubman Centers extended the concept further inwith terrazzo tiles at the Mall at Short Hills in New Jerseyindoor fountains, and two levels allowing a shopper to make a circuit of all the stores.
Taubman believed carpeting increased friction, slowing down customers, so it was removed.
Fading daylight through glass panels was supplemented by gradually increased electric lighting, making it seem like the afternoon was lasting longer, which encouraged shoppers to linger. Ina year before the Great Recessionno new malls were built in America, for the first time in 50 years. Some real estate experts say the "fundamental problem" is a glut of malls in many parts of the country creating a market that is "extremely over-retailed".
In the United Statesonline shopping has accounted for an increasing share of total retail sales. Government regulations forced mall closures, increased entrance controls, and imposed strict public sanitation requirements.
The largest enclosed shopping mall from to was the , m2 3, sq ft West Edmonton Mall in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
The world's second-largest shopping mall is the Golden Resources Mall in BeijingChina with a gross floor area of , m2 7, sq ft. SM Megamall in the Philippinesis the world's third-largest at , m2 5, sq ft of gross floor area.
Există concepția greșită că mall-urile sunt un rezultat al dezvoltării comerțului în ultimele decenii. În realitate însă, marile centre comerciale există de peste un mileniu, iar centrele comerciale moderne nu fac decât să reia o concepție care exista de mult. Intrarea din Maidan-i Naqş-i Jahan în bazarul din Isfahan Vedere din interiorul bazarului din Isfahan în timpul pauzei de prânz.
The fourth largest shopping mall in the world is SM City North EDSA in Quezon CityPhilippines with a gross floor area of , m2 5, sq ft and the fifth largest shopping mall is 1 Utama in Malaysia at , m2 5, sq ft of gross floor area.
The most visited shopping mall in the world and third-largest mall in the United States is the Mall of Americalocated near the Twin Cities in Bloomington, Minnesota.
The Philippines has the most number of shopping malls in the top largest shopping malls in the world with Vertical malls[ edit ] The mall in the Water Tower Place, an early vertical mall opened inhas eight levels of shops. The challenge of this type of mall is to overcome the natural tendency of shoppers to move horizontally and encourage shoppers to move upwards and downwards.
It contains a hotel, luxury condominiums, and office space and sits atop a block-long base containing an eight-level atrium-style retail mall that fronts on the Magnificent Mile. Times Square in Hong Kong is a principal example.
- Strategii de marketing pentru centrele comerciale O lume a centrelor comerciale Centrele comerciale s-au dezvoltat foarte mult în România în ultimii ani, aproape la fel de mult precum însăși conceptul de centru comercial.
- România, record de centre comerciale. Câte milioane de metri pătraţi s-au realizat
- Câștigați bani pe recenziile de pe site- urile de internet
- Бринкерхофф кивнул.
- Centru comercial - Wikipedia
- Ce este o poziție în opțiuni
- Shopping mall - Wikipedia
- O lume a centrelor comerciale - depozituldefrumusete.ro
The Darwin Shopping Centre and associated malls in ShrewsburyUK, are built on the centrele comerciale ale lumii of a steep hill, around the former town walls;  consequently the shopping center is split opțiuni binare 5 februarie seven floors vertically — two locations horizontally — connected by elevators, escalators and bridge walkways.
Some establishments incorporate such designs into their layout, such as Shrewsbury's former McDonald'ssplit into four stories with multiple mezzanines which featured medieval castle vaults — complete with arrowslits — in the basement dining rooms.