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Overview[ edit ] A design rationale is the explicit listing of decisions made during a design processand the reasons why those decisions were made. Several science areas are involved in the study of design rationales, such as computer science [2] cognitive science[3] artificial intelligence[5] and knowledge management.

History[ edit ] While argumentation formats can be traced back to Stephen Toulmin 's work in the s [7] datums, claims, warrants, backings and rebuttals, the origin of design rationale can be traced back to W. Several variants on IBIS have since been proposed.

For example, Carroll and Rosson's Scenario-Claims Analysis approach [17] captures rationale in scenarios that describe how the system is used and how well the system features support the user goals. Carroll and Rosson's approach to design rationale is intended to help designers of computer software and hardware identify underlying design tradeoffs and make inferences about the impact of potential design interventions. Some key distinguishing features are how it is captured, how it is represented, sistem d alembert cu opțiuni binare how it can be used.

Rationale capture is the process of acquiring rationale information to a rationale management Capture methods A method called "Reconstruction" [4] captures rationales in a raw form such as video, and then reconstruct them into a more structured form. But this method might result in high cost and biases of the person producing the rationales The "Record-and-replay" [4] method simply captures rationales as they unfold.

Rationales are synchronously captured in a video conference or asynchronously captured via bulletin board or email-based discussion.

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If the system has informal and semi-formal representation, the method sistem d alembert cu opțiuni binare be helpful. The "Methodological byproduct" [4] method captures rationales during the process of design following a schema. But it's hard to design such a schema.

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The advantage of this method is its low cost. With a rich knowledge base KB created in advance, the "Apprentice" [4] method captures rationales by asking questions when confusing or disagreeing with the designer's action. This method benefits not only the user but the system.


In "Automatic Generation" [4] method, design rationales are automatically generated from an execution history at low cost. It has the ability in maintaining consistent and up-to-date rationales. But the cost of compiling the execution history is high due to the complexity and difficulty of some machine-learning problems. The "Historian" [20] method let a person or computer program watches all designer's actions but does not make suggestions.

Rationales are captured during the design process. According to the degree of formality, the approaches that are used to represent design rationale can be divided into three main categories: informal, semiformal, or formal.

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However, these descriptions make it hard for automatic interpretation or other computer-based supports. In the formal representation, the rationale must be collected under a strict format so that the rationale can be interpreted and understood by computers.

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However, due to the strict format of rationale defined by formal representations, the contents can hardly be understood by human being and the process of capturing design rationale will require more efforts to finish, and therefore becomes more intrusive. Semiformal representations try to combine the advantages of informal and formal representations. On one hand, the information captured should be able to be processed by computers so that more computer based support can be provided.

On the other hand, the sistem d alembert cu opțiuni binare and method used to capture information of design rationale should not be very intrusive. In the system with a semiformal representation, the sistem d alembert cu opțiuni binare expected is suggested and the users can capture rationale by following the instructions to either fill out the attributes according to some templates or just type into natural language descriptions.

One advantage of Toulmin model is that it uses words and concepts which can be easily understood by most people. PHI adds the subissue relationship which means one issue's resolution depends on the resolution of another issue. In addition, QOC uses criteria to explicitly describe the methods to evaluate the options, such as the requirements to be satisfied or the properties desired.

The options are linked with criteria positively or negatively and these links are defined as assessments. Lee has argued that DRL is more expressive than other languages. WinWin Spiral Model The WinWin Spiral Model, which is used in the WinWin approach, [28] adds the WinWin negotiation activities, including identifying key stakeholders of the systems, and identifying the win conditions câștiguri 2021 internet each stakeholder and negotiation, into the front of each cycle of the spiral software development model [29] in order to achieve a mutually satisfactory winwin agreement for all stakeholders of the project.

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Once there is a conflict between win conditions, it is captured as an Issue. Then the stakeholders invent Options and explore trade-offs to resolve the issue. When the issue is solved, an Agreement which satisfies the win conditions of stakeholders and captures the agreed option is achieved.

Design rationale behind the decisions is captured during the process of the WinWin model and will be used by stakeholders and the designers to improve their later decision making.

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In [30] an ontology of decision rationale is defined and their model utilizes the ontology to address the problem of supporting decision maintenance in the WinWin collaboration framework.

Negotiations are also needed when conflicts exist between the intents of different designers. Applications[ edit ] Design rationale has the potential to be used in many different ways. One set of uses, defined by Burge and Brown[19] are: Design verification — The design rationale can be used to verify if the design decisions and the product itself are the reflection of what the designers and the users actually wanted.


Design evaluation — The design rationale is used to evaluate the various design alternatives discussed during the design process.

Design maintenance — The design rationale helps to determine the changes that are necessary to modify the design. Design reuse — The design rationale is used to determine how the sistem d alembert cu opțiuni binare design could be reused for a new requirement with or without any changes in it. If there is a need to modify the design, then the DR also suggests what needs to be modified in the design.

Design teaching — The design rationale could be used as a resource to teach people who are unfamiliar with the design and the system. Design communication — The design sistem d alembert cu opțiuni binare facilitates better communication among people who are involved in the design process and thus helps to come up with a better design.

Design assistance — The design rationale could be used to verify the design decisions made during the design process.

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Design documentation — The design rationale is used to document the entire design process which involves the meeting room deliberations, alternatives discussed, reasons behind the design decisions and the product overview. DR is used by research communities in software engineering, mechanical design, artificial intelligence, civil engineering, and human-computer interaction research.

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In software engineering, it could be used to support the designers ideas during requirement analysis, capturing and documenting design meetings and predicting possible issues due to new design approach. It also help the designers to understand and respect each other's ideas and resolve any possible issues. Also, the project team members who missed a design meeting can refer back the DR to learn what was discussed on a particular topic.